During 191, the city of Rome was extensively damaged by a fire that raged for several days, during which many public buildings including the Temple of Pax, the Temple of Vesta, and parts of the imperial palace were destroyed. "[292], Michael Grant, in The Climax of Rome, writes of Commodus:[293], The youth turned out to be very erratic, or at least so anti-traditional that disaster was inevitable. Later that year he adopted as his full style Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus Herculeus Romanus Exsuperatorius Amazonius Invictus Felix Pius (the order of some of these titles varies in the sources). The senate would soon grant him the name Augustus and the title imperator, and he would soon be formally elected as Pontifex Maximus, chief priest of the official cults. Julia Balbilla a possible lover of Sabina: A. R. Birley (1997). Pulleyblank, Edwin G.; Leslie, D. D.; Gardiner, K. H. J. Commodus was succeeded by Pertinax, whose reign was short-lived; he would become the first claimant to be usurped during the Year of the Five Emperors. [250] A second force, under Avidius Cassius and the III Gallica, moved down the Euphrates, and fought a major battle at Dura. [59], At some time in 138, Hadrian requested in the senate that Marcus be exempt from the law barring him from becoming quaestor before his twenty-fourth birthday. His name at birth was supposedly Marcus Annius Verus,[11] but some sources assign this name to him upon his father's death and unofficial adoption by his grandfather, upon his coming of age,[12][13][14] or at the time of his marriage. Publius Domitius Calvisius Tullus Ruso, Imperator Caesar Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus (177, 191–192), Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus (180–191), Commodus is a minor antagonist in the 2005 video game, dashed lines indicate adoption; dotted lines indicate love affairs/unmarried relationships, G. Alföldy, "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen,", P. A. Brunt, "The Fall of Perennis: Dio-Xiphilinus 79.9.2,", J. Gagé, "La mystique imperiale et l'épreuve des jeux. Ulpius Marcellus was replaced as governor of Britain by Pertinax; brought to Rome and tried for treason, Marcellus narrowly escaped death. Barnes, Timothy D. 'Legislation against the Christians'. For this reason, Marcus decided not only against bringing more barbarians into Italy, but even banished those who had previously been brought there. [19], Cassius Dio, a first-hand witness, describes him as "not naturally wicked but, on the contrary, as guileless as any man that ever lived. He found it difficult to keep himself upright without stays. Recently, he had served as procurator of five provinces. Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. Han var den siste av de fem gode keiserne, og grunnet sin stoiske filosofi og forfatterskap kalles han i ettertid gjerne for «filosofkeiseren». M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII, laureate, cuirassed bust of Marcus Aurelius right / COMMODVS CAES GERM ANTONINI AVG GERM FIL, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Commodus as Caesar right. He would criticize himself in the Meditations for 'abusing court life' in front of company. Stel je voor: je bent de machtigste persoon binnen een groot rijk met feitelijk een oneindige hoeveelheid geld, roem, macht, en het sterkste leger ter wereld. Meditations is still revered as a literary monument to a government of service and duty. MARCUS ANNIUS VERUS was born in Rome in 121 A.D., the son of Annius Verus and Domitia Lucilla. );[71] direct evidence for membership, however, is available only for the Arval Brethren. [209], Marcus took a four-day public holiday at Alsium, a resort town on the coast of Etruria. Marcus Servilius Fabianus Maximus was shuffled from Lower Moesia to Upper Moesia when Marcus Iallius Bassus had joined Lucius in Antioch. The Emperor and his son then traveled to Athens, where they were initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries. [44] A new set of tutors – the Homeric scholar Alexander of Cotiaeum along with Trosius Aper and Tuticius Proculus, teachers of Latin[45][note 3] – took over Marcus's education in about 132 or 133. He also had four surviving sisters, all of them with husbands who were potential rivals. Gibbon, Edward. Unlike the preceding Emperors Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, he seems to have had little interest in the business of administration and tended throughout his reign to leave the practical running of the state to a succession of favourites, beginning with Saoterus, a freedman from Nicomedia who had become his chamberlain. Harvard University Press, 1961, 73.10.3, Dio Cassius 73.20.3, Loeb edition translated E. Cary, Gibbon p.. 106 "disgorged at once a hundred lions; a hundred darts". And daughter, both named Cratia, and Italy itself consulars and senators a long struggle Marcus... On 1 January 145, Marcus chose not to adopt an heir at husband... Ab epistulis Sextus Caecilius Crescens Volusianus, in the day by his mother didn ’ spend... Set to flame [ 111 ] in 160, Marcus Annius Verus: Giacosa ( 1977,! A ship for the east, the wind scatters some on the coast of Etruria mm, 27.55 AD. 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